Tocantins-Araguaia-Maranhão moist forests, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, "Where the Xingu Bends and Will Soon Break". Between the latter and the confluence with the Araguaia, the Tocantins is occasionally obstructed by rocky barriers which cross it almost at a right angle. [8], In its lower reaches the Tocantins separates the Tocantins-Araguaia-Maranhão moist forests ecoregion to the east from the Xingu-Tocantins-Araguaia moist forests ecoregion to the west. It acts as a barrier that prevents dispersal of flora and fauna between these ecoregions.[10]. Inia araguaiaensis. It was discovered in 2016 from the middle and upper Rio Tocantins, Brazil. Tucurui Dam, Serra de Masa Dam, Cana Brava Dam, Pixie Angical Dam etc. Lambert de Brito Ribeiro, M.C. [5] The most species rich families are Characidae (tetras and allies), Loricariidae (pleco catfish and allies) and Rivulidae (South American killifish). The researchers used underwater cameras and microphones to track the animals’ sounds and interactions, and also took some genetic samples to pinpoint the relationships between them. “We now have all these new questions to explore.”. “We can't say what the evolutionary story is yet until we get to know what sounds are produced by other river dolphins in the Amazon area, and how that relates to what we found,” May-Collado says. Privacy Statement [6] There are several fish species that migrate along the Tocantins to spawn, but this has been restricted by the dams. But as Gizmodo’s George Dvorsky reports, a new study suggests that Araguaian river dolphins are quite talkative indeed. Fishing in the waters of these river systems sustains the livel… The botos, as it turns out, were chatting up a storm. The Tocantins River is considered an important waterway, along which to ferry iron ore and grains from Midwestern Brazil to the northern state of Pará. 10) There are several dams which are built on Tocantins River viz. The sub-basins have the following specific discharge rates: Tocantins (11 l/s/km²), Araguaia (16 l/s/km²), Pará (17l/s/km²) and Guamá (21l/s/km²). Amazon River Dolphin . The study authors can’t say, for instance, whether other groups of Araguaian river dolphins are as talkative as the one that has become used to humans. Mammals, such as river otters, beavers and muskrats, also live in rivers, as do amphibians, such as frogs and salamanders. [4] When the second phase of the Tucuruí project was completed in November 30th, 2010, a system of locks called Eclusas do Tucuruí was established with the goal of making a long extension of the river navigable. The study authors can’t say, for instance, whether other groups of. The Tocantins-Araguaia-Maranhão moist forest is an area of dense rain forest in the eastern extreme of the Amazon Basin flanked by the mouth of the Amazon River and the Atlantic Ocean. California Do Not Sell My Info https://www.thoughtco.com/animals-of-the-amazon-river-basin-4114280 11 distinct indigenous ethnic tribes of South America still have members who are settled along the banks of the Tocantins River and its tributaries. “There are a lot of obstacles like flooded forests and vegetation in their habitat,” she explains, “so this signal could have evolved to avoid echoes from vegetation and improve the communication range of mothers and their calves.”. 1) .The Araguaia-Tocantins River basin currently does not form part of the Amazon River basin , , the two basins having become disconnected although not completely isolated at the transition of the Pliocene to the Pleistocene . Araguaia National Park, which now covers the northern third of Bananal Island, was the first national park decreed in the Brazilian Amazon. This could, May-Collado suggests, have something to do with the river environment that botos call home. 9) Tocantins River basin has plenty of fish species and several other aquatic animals like Amazonian manatee, Araguaian river dolphin, Tucuxi etc. One example: To enable the development of an industrial waterway on the Tocantins River, the National Department of Infrastructure and Transportation (DNIT) is planning to dynamite the Lourenço Rocks, a freshwater dolphin and turtle habitat and fishery vital to riverside communities. The Araguaia flows 1,670 km before its confluence with the Tocantins, to which it is almost equal in volume. Potamotrygon rex was discovered in Brazil’s Tocantins River. Find what to do today or anytime in December. Its basin covers an area of 301,600 square miles in the Federal District and the states of Goiás, Tocantins, Mato Grosso, Maranhão, and Pará. Researchers have identified more than 20 archaeologically significant sites related to indigenous cultures. The geomorphological his-tory of the Tocantins River, in turn, is mostly associ- The Araguaia River’s southern section forms the boundary between Mato Grosso state (west) and Goiás and Tocantins states (east). We have reviews of the best places to see in State of Tocantins. The flat, broad valleys, composed of sand and clay, of both the Tocantins and its Araguaia branch are overlooked by steep bluffs. This critically endangered species is endemic to eastern Amazon in Brazil, it being restricted to a relatively small region from the Tocantins River in Pará east to around the Grajaú River in Maranhão (similar to the range of the equally threatened Kaapori Capuchin). Males sometimes twirl sticks to impress females. Freshwater dolphin – These pink dolphins detect prey in the muddy river waters with echo-location. Visit top-rated & must-see attractions. Only 1,000 may be alive today. [4] More than 350 fish species have been registered, including more than 175 endemics. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru; also regions of eastern and southeastern Brazil. The most common sounds were short, two-part calls that baby botos made when approaching their mothers. The Tocantins River and its main tributary, the Araguaia River, are among the largest rivers in eastern Amazon (Figure 1) and they stand out due to host areas with significant accumulation of Quaternary sediments (MMA, 2006). At … Rare Amazonian turtles, endangered Araguaian river dolphins, and a dozen threatened fish species could soon be under attack by Brazilian engineering firm DTA Engineering in their plans to dynamite, dredge, and fill with sand the bed of an area of the Tocantins River known as the Lourencão Rocks. This article is a stub. It feeds mainly on fish but also on other animals that fall into the water such as small terrestrial invertebrates. In finding its way to the lowlands, it breaks frequently into waterfalls and rapids, or winds violently through rocky gorges, until, at a point about 160 km above its junction with the Tocantins, it saws its way across a rocky dyke for 20 km in roaring cataracts. The stingray has a black or dark brownish color with several small yellow spots on the dorsal disk. The northern tip of Tocantins is covered with tropical rainforest. More than 350 fish species have been registered, including more than 175 endemics. [4][5] Following the construction of the massive Tucuruí dam, the flow of the river changed. The combined watershed of Araguaia and Tocantins rivers (named the Araguaia Tocantins Basin) covers approximately 9.5% of Brazil's national territory. The Tocantins is one of the largest clearwater rivers in South America.[3]. It rises in the mountainous district known as the Pireneus, west of the Federal District, but its western tributary, the Araguaia River, has its extreme southern headwaters on the slopes of the Serra dos Caiapós. Tocantins RiverTocantins River, a waterway in Brazil that rises from the central altiplano in the state of Goiás and flows about 1,500 miles north to empty into the bay of Marapatá across from the island of Marajó on the Atlantic coast near Belém. The climate is generally subtropical. Aspidoras mephisto, new species: The first troglobitic Callichthyidae (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from South America. This area is an integral part of the Amazon biome; however, the Araguaia River is not a tributary of the Amazon. The animals were transported over ice in a cooler box and were pro-cessed within 24 hours. It straddles both the Amazon Rainforest and the coastal savanna. South America: Amazon River, Tocantins River, Orinoco River, Essequibo River, Oyapock River [= Oiapoque] and rivers of Amapá and Pará, Brazil. “Given these similarities,” the researchers write, “we propose these two-component signals could have evolved early in the evolutionary history of toothed whales as social contact signals, likely for mother-calf interactions and later in the lineage leading to delphinids it evolved into a group recognition signal.”. In the state of Pará, the region extends west to the Tocantins River and south to the Mearim River in Maranhão State. Shrimp are exploited on a small scale throughout the Amazon Basin but, compared to fish, they are of little commercial importance, except in the estuary region and lower Tocantins River. [4][7], The São Domingos karst in the upper Tocantins River basin is home to an unusually high number of cavefish species (more than any other region in the Americas): Ancistrus cryptophthalmus, several Ituglanis species, Pimelodella spelaea, Aspidoras mephisto, an undescribed Cetopsorhamdia species and Eigenmannia vicentespelaea. (2010). Araguaian river dolphins are highly elusive creatures. It is the largest river dolphin species that can weigh as much as 185 kg and grow as long as 2.5 m. These dolphins are noted for … Most river dolphins live throughout the Amazon River Basin, but this new species is concentrated in the Araguaia-Tocantins River system, almost completely disconnected from … The Tocantins River records a mean discharge rate of 13,598 m³/s and a specific discharge rate of 14.4 l/s/km². Rising on the highlands near the town of Alto Araguaia in central Brazil, the Araguaia River flows north-northeast for 1,632 miles (2,627 kilometers) to its junction with the Tocantins River at São João do Araguaia. Crustaceans such as crayfish, shrimp, some types of lobster and certain crab species live in streams and rivers. They are the margins of the great sandstone plateaus, from 300 to 600 metres (980 to 1,970 ft) elevation above sea-level, through which the rivers have eroded their deep beds. Besides its main tributary, the Rio das Mortes, the Araguaia has twenty smaller branches, offering many miles of canoe navigation. Tocantins River; Para River; Amazon River Animals. But there is still much research to be done. Isaac Newton Thought the Great Pyramid Held the Key to the Apocalypse, Divers Discover Nazi Enigma Machine Thrown Into the Baltic Sea During WWII, Rare Iridescent Snake Discovered in Vietnam, Researchers Reveal Why Seattle Salmon Bite the Dust After Rainstorms, Shipwreck Exposed by Erosion on Florida Coast Could Be 200 Years Old, Researchers "Translate" Bat Talk. But there is still much research to be done. The Black bearded saki (Chiropotes satanas), is a species of bearded saki, a type of New World monkey. Necks twistable at right angles help them slither between flooded trees. Smithsonian Institution, Araguaian river dolphins are highly elusive creatures. A new species of Gelanoglanis is described based on specimens collected in the Tocantins River, a tributary of the Amazon Basin. [5] While most species essentially are of Amazonian origin, there are also some showing a connection with the Paraná and São Francisco rivers. If any portion of the waters of the Amazon runs round the southern side of the large island of Marajó into the river Para, it is only through tortuous, natural canals, which are in no sense outflow channels of the Amazon. The Black-fronted nunbird Monasa nigrifrons, is a species of puffbird in the Bucconidae family. Cookie Policy Researchers have discovered a new species of river dolphin from the Amazon. or It is the only major conservation unit protecting wetlands in the Tocantins Basin and is probably Brazil’s best hope for protecting wildlife associated with savanna wetlands. The Inia geoffrensis is endemic to the Amazon River basin where its three subspecies are found. Nearly 300 fish species, including many endemic species, have been identified in the Tocantins-Araguaia River systems as well. The Tocantins is a petri dish of exotic life; 35 percent of fish species found in the river can’t be found anywhere else on Earth. Caserta Tencatt; L.F.; and M. Elina Bichuette (2017). Continue The Tocantins River Basin has a high richness of fish species, although it is relatively low by Amazon Basin standards. Turns Out, They Argue—A Lot, Remember Chuck Yeager by Exploring the Plane He Flew to Break the Sound Barrier, Oxford University Is Older Than the Aztecs, In Winter, Pandas Love to Roll in Horse Poop, The Inspiring Quest to Revive the Hawaiian Language, The New Science of Our Ancient Bond With Dogs, Why Seagrass Could Be the Ocean's Secret Weapon Against Climate Change. Previous theories posited that the animals’ vocal repertoire was more limited than that of their chatty marine relatives—like bottlenose dolphins—since Araguaian river dolphins are thought to spend much of their time alone. The Tocantins River Basin (which include the Araguaia River) is the home of several large aquatic mammals such as Amazonian manatee, Araguaian river dolphin and tucuxi, and larger reptiles such as black caiman, spectacled caiman and yellow-spotted river turtle. Though botos are typically skittish, there is a group of Araguaian dolphins that has become accustomed to humans; the animals hang out near a market in the Brazilian town of Mocajuba, where human shoppers feed them tasty fish. A team led by Gabriel Melo-Santos, a marine biologist at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, set out to record these unusually bold botos, in the hopes of learning more about Araguaian dolphin communication. In the Tupi language, its name means "toucan's beak" (Tukã for "toucan" and Ti for "beak"). Is active at dusk and at night. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tocantins_River&oldid=970706196, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 August 2020, at 22:33. Across 20 hours of recordings, the researchers identified 237 different sounds, and they believe the dolphins’ acoustic repertoire is likely greater than that. These include all types of crustaceans, worms, snails and insects. Tocantins geography is varied. Garavello, J.C.; Garavello, J.P.; and Oliveira, A.K. Vote Now! Keep up-to-date on: © 2020 Smithsonian Magazine. Animals that live in rivers include fish, some insect larvae and reptiles, such as turtles. Downstream from the Araguaia confluence, in the state of Pará, the river used to have many cataracts and rapids, but they were flooded in the early 1980s by the artificial lake created by the Tucuruí dam, one of the world's largest. The researchers used underwater cameras and microphones to track the animals’ sounds and interactions, and also took some genetic samples to pinpoint the relationships between them. “It’s exciting,” says study co-author Laura May-Collado, a biologist at the University of Vermont. In 2016, the engineering firm DTA Engenharia won a concession to dredge a roughly 43km long stretch of the river in Pará State, known as the Pedral do Lourenço. Advertising Notice "Araguaia" means "River of the macaws" in the native Tupi language. Not only do scientists have a complete understanding of the communication patterns of other river dolphins, like the closely related Amazon river dolphin and Bolivian river dolphin. The botos did infrequently emit some longer calls and whistles, but unlike bottlenose dolphins who use whistles to foster social cohesion, botos seemed to use the sound to maintain distance. P. rex is an impressive 1.1 meters (3.6 ft) long and can weigh upwards of … PLoS ONE 12(3): e0171309. The Tocantins River Basin (which include the Araguaia River) is the home of several large aquatic mammals such as Amazonian manatee, Araguaian river dolphin and tucuxi, and larger reptiles such as black caiman, spectacled caiman and yellow-spotted river turtle. Two other tributaries, called the Maranhão and Paranatinga, collect an immense volume of water from the highlands which surround them, especially on the south and south-east. Get the best of Smithsonian magazine by email. It is not really a branch of the Amazon River, since its waters flow into the Atlantic Ocean alongside those of the Amazon. The mysterious animals belong to a South American group of river dolphins known as “botos,” which are found only in the Amazon, Orinoco, and Tocantins river … 17th Annual Photo Contest Finalists Announced. This large, strikingly patterned freshwater stingray is endemic to the Tocantins River in Brazil. But as, The mysterious animals belong to a South American group of river dolphins known as. It flows through four Brazilian states (Goiás, Tocantins, Maranhão and Pará) and gives its name to one of Brazil's newest states, formed in 1988 from what was until then the northern portion of Goiás. 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