What is Urban Agriculture? Related to this, financing was reported as very or extremely challenging by more than a third of the respondents. Smit, J., Ratta, A., & Nasr, J. The potential benefits agriculture off ers in urban areas have gained the interest of many residents and policy makers, who are implementing policies, developing infrastructure, and creating markets to support the growing number of urban farms. In many ways, urban farms have the same needs as other farms, especially small, diversified rural and peri-urban farms, and many Extension personnel are already providing assistance to these types of farms and should look to adapt those materials and methods. New York, NY: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). PY - 2014/1/1. Get this from a library! 64-78. Although a growing number of state land-grant universities and their Extension programs are allocating resources for urban agriculture (Reynolds, 2011; Surls et al., 2014), there is a dearth of research and literature regarding urban agriculture to rely on. Sustainable urban agriculture: Stocktake and opportunities. [Jerome L Kaufman; Martin Bailkey; Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.] In general, informant interviews revealed that urban farmers do not currently rely on Extension personnel for their technical assistance needs. Farm labor is another major concern for about one-fifth of the respondents, and established urban farms find accessing farm labor more often challenging than their counterparts. Key differences between start-up and established urban farms can be seen in three topics—soil fertility and compost, urban production practices, and farm security. Production costs were rated as the most challenging aspect of urban farms, with managing pests, weeds, and climate viewed as very to extremely challenging by at least a quarter of urban farmers. Urban agriculture, urban farming, or urban gardening is the practice of cultivating, processing, and distributing food in or around urban areas. N2 - Urban agriculture offers potential benefits to urban areas and has captured the attention of residents and policymakers. Based on a national survey of urban farmers and interviews, this article explores the challenges and technical assistance needs of these farms. Poorly designed policy can render urban agriculture to remain an “invisible” sector of society. Extension personnel are uniquely placed to provide this type of assistance. The cities included Atlanta, GA; Austin, TX; Cleveland, OH; Denver, CO; Kansas City, MO; Minneapolis, MN; Missoula, MT; New Orleans, LA; New York, NY; Philadelphia, PA; Portland, ME; Portland, OR; Oakland, CA; Salt Lake City, UT; and Washington, D.C. Senior Researcher Because community gardens also grow food in urban areas, we allowed respondents to self-identify as either community garden or urban/peri-urban farm. Of the urban farms that sold some amount of products grown on the farm, farmers markets and Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) were the top marketing outlets (Table 2). Urban agriculture offers many potential benefits to urban areas, such as green space and access to fresh food for urban consumers. Published bimonthly online by Extension Journal, Inc. © 1962-2020 Copyright by Extension Journal, Inc. ISSN 1077-5315.Copyright Policy, http://georgiaorganics.org/wp-content/themes/GeorgiaOrganics/Downloads/SiteMoveOver/urbanagreport.pdf, http://5728452006d458e3e74c-2f6bef8b2d7e04086879310a43d837d9.r29.cf1.rackcdn.com/Report_UrbanAg_USDN_Oct2012.pdf, http://www.planning.org/research/foodaccess/pdf/foodaccessreport.pdf, http://www.urbantilth.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/farminginsidecities.pdf, http://www.joe.org/joe/2013february/a10.php, http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1742170514000052, Direct-to-retail (e.g., grocery stores, food cooperatives), Distributed through cooperative of farms/other farmers, Environmental pollution (e.g., toxins in the soil), Environmental contamination (soil, water, and air). New York, New York Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. Another may be facilitating urban farmer training programs, providing assistance with business planning, which was rated as highly needed in the survey, as well as production practices and marketing and distribution. Although this suggests that there may be differences in terms of challenges and technical assistance needs for start-up and more established urban farms, the survey results did not bear this out. Urban agriculture offers many potential benefits to urban areas, such as green space and access to fresh food for urban consumers. Urban agriculture, as used in this article, refers to the growing of plants and the raising of animals within and around cities. & Bailkey, M. (2000). A Brief History of Urban Garden Programs in the United States. Food policy councils and city governments around the country, in cities including New York City, Baltimore, and Chicago, have explicitly incorporated suggestions for their local food environments intended to facilitate the expansion of urban agriculture (Goldstein, Bellis, Morse, Myers, & Ura, 2011; Hodgson, 2012). Urban farmers face significant knowledge gaps and institutional barriers (Pearson, Pearson, & Pearson, 2010). [On-line}, 45(1) Article 1FEA10. The City of Detroit, once the wealthiest city in the United States, saw its population peak in 1950 at 1.8 million. Such issues are especially prevalent in developing lands and in areas affected by poverty where effective infrastructure, e.g. Integrated into its urban environment, farming in the city uses and reuses urban resources (including labor and natural resources) and returns agricultural products to urban consumers. > Upcoming Workshops Greenhouse 130 41.3. Sixty percent of farmers reported relying on off-farm income as a source for the primary farmer's income, and another 31.0% reported using grant funding and fundraising. Urban agriculture—Best practices and possibilities. Urban agriculture: A sixteen city survey of urban agriculture practices across the country. Thirty-five questions inquired about production practices, marketing practices (e.g., products sold, marketing outlets), risks and challenges, information and technical assistance needs, and basic farm characteristics. Almost half of the farms surveyed can be characterized as start-up farms. Urban agriculture can play an important role in supporting local food systems. Although urban and agricultural landscapes are often integrated in countries around the world, the establishment of mid- to large-scale food production in the U.S. urban ecosystem is a relatively new development. AU - Oberholtzer, Lydia. Increasing urban food deserts in many parts of the world has motivated the improvement of methods of UA in order to complement urban food needs.13 14 In this paper, UA was categorized into two spheres: Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) 15 and Uncontrolled Environment Agriculture or open space agriculture (UEA).16 N=315 We define start-up farms as those farms established within the last 10 years and the primary farmer having five years or less experience. Retrieved from: http://www.urbantilth.org/wp-content/uploads/2008/10/farminginsidecities.pdf. Although urban and agricultural landscapes are often integrated in countries around the world, the establishment of mid‐ to large‐scale food production in the U.S. urban ecosystem is a relatively new development. Urban farmers are faced with a unique set of challenges that includes the high cost of land, access to capital resources, and limited availability of technical assistance. Hodgson, K. (2012). Only 32.9% of farmers reported that the primary farmer earned a living by farming in 2012. Gearing up to support urban farming in California: Preliminary results of a needs assessment. If you have difficulties viewing or printing this page, please contact JOE Technical However, there are unique challenges to urban agriculture that require special attention, such as access to land, city zoning issues, access to water and water management, and livestock issues within the urban context, and environmental contamination, to name a few. All Rights Reserved, > Sustainable Ag Webinars Farm viability and profitability were raised as key concerns in the interviews with urban farmers and other stakeholders in 15 study cities. The instrument, developed in consultation with stakeholders, was implemented using Survey Monkey, with paper copies available upon request. > Accessibility The survey also asked about production practices common to urban agriculture (Table 1). Home > Urban agriculture in the United States: reconnecting consumers and producers Information ; Usage statistics . Butte, Montana reproduced in electronic or print form for use in educational or training N=315 Unlike many of their rural counterparts, however, in addition to the unique challenges of raising food in urban areas, urban farms have higher rates of inexperienced farmers and lower gross sales. In turn, there may be no restrictions which can lead to issues of environmental and human welfare. Urban Agriculture. 04 Allotment garden in Munich Note: Do not add to 100% because a percentage of respondents also reported "not applicable." Urban populations in the United States have increased from 130 million in 1960 to 259 Facilitating and using these networks to enhance technical assistance provision can be one role that Extension staff can play given the time and financially strapped environment that many function within. (1996). The city council first proposed an urban agriculture plan in 2011, and 250 community gardens and 32 farmers markets have already swept the city. activities. The respondents also reported that the urban farms had been in operation an average of 13 years. In general, however, many urban farmers reported a moderate to high need for many of the topics covered in the survey, showing demand for technical assistance in the sector. Farming in the city presents many challenges, some of which are common to all types of farming, and others unique to the urban setting. 03 Industrial farming Fig. Box 3838 However, interviews with stakeholders seem to suggest that these topics of are of greater concern in certain cities, mostly likely due to policy differences. Profitability, financing, and production costs were rated the highest challenges. On the other hand, the benefits of urban agriculture may also not be fully realized if appropriate support infrastructure is not in place. The survey hints at these concerns as well. In addition, many inner-city communities are rich in social and environmental capital even while they are poor in economic resources. Click through to see all! or written permission of the Journal The survey was promoted through various listservs nationally. Regulatory and other barriers to urban and peri-urban agriculture: A case study of urban planners and urban farmers from the greater Chicago metropolitan area. University Park, Pennsylvania Inclusion of articles in other publications, electronic sources, This presentation summarizes the history of urban gardening in the United States. Urban agriculture in the United States has been enriched by the skills and technologies of immigrant populations, from Japanese market gardeners in California to Italian urban gardeners in the Northeast. Because few urban farms have substantial livestock numbers, it is not surprising that animal health is the least challenging aspect on these farms. 30, no. There are also some cities where Extension staff is starting to focus on urban and peri-urban farms and to modify their training and outreach to fit the needs of these farms. One recent survey found that 51 countries do not have enough urban area to meet a recommended nutritional target of 300 grams per person per day of fresh vegetables. Urban agriculture offers potential benefits to urban areas and has captured the attention of residents and policymakers. These cities include both large and smaller cities, and an effort was made to include cities from different regions of the country. This concern is confirmed by the gross sales data for the farms (Table 3). Coinciding with a rise in farmers market, cities and states are seeking to utilize urban areas by transforming small parcels of land or vacant lots into areas of agricultural production.Urban agriculture describes operations ranging from community gardens to commercial production on a larger scale. The potential benefits agriculture off ers in urban areas have gained the interest of many residents and policy makers, who are implementing policies, developing infrastructure, and creating markets to support the growing number of urban farms. Retrieved from: http://georgiaorganics.org/wp-content/themes/GeorgiaOrganics/Downloads/SiteMoveOver/urbanagreport.pdf. Urban agriculture, though often difficult to define, is an emerging sector of local food economies in the United States. However, as with any system, there are potential downsides which can reduce or even eliminate the potential benefits. Assessing the educational needs of urban gardeners and farmers on the subject of soil contamination. A national study of urban farms was initiated in 2013 by the authors to assess the risks and economics unique to urban agriculture and to examine the technical assistance needs of urban farmers. Although it has been estimated that urban agriculture can meet 15 to 20 percent of global food demand, it remains to be seen what level of food self-sufficiency it can realistically ensure for cities. Some topics raised in the literature as challenges in the urban setting—access to water, infrastructure, and environmental pollution—were raised as a concern by fewer farmers in our survey. Orders are shipped via USPS.Shipping and handling charges will depend on the size of your order. In the respondent population, approximately 37% reported having multiple production sites, and an average of 78.1% of all total production was reported being grown within city boundaries. Urban agriculture is also the term used for animal husbandry, aquaculture, agroforestry, urban beekeeping, and horticulture.These activities occur in peri-urban areas as well. Associate Professor All survey data were analyzed using the statistical analysis program Stata (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas, USA). Explore information and tools on urban agriculture. Researchers from Penn State University and New York University administered the survey (IRB# 12-9272 NYU; IRB Protocol ID 40596 Penn State). These results are also supported by the interviews in the study's 15 cities, suggesting that urban farms have a difficult time providing a high-volume of product due to their small acreage and tend to focus on high-value, niche products to low-volume customers, focusing on quality and price over quantity. For these reasons, urban agriculture has captured the attention of city residents and policymakers. The Urban Food Agenda is an FAO flagship initiative to enhance sustainable development, food security and nutrition in urban and peri-urban areas, and nearby rural spaces. The report Urban Agriculture: Findings from Four City Case Studies showcases four cities where urban agriculture is present. ATTRA – Sustainable Agriculture Program andyp@ncat.org. Farming inside cities: Entrepreneurial urban agriculture in the United States. Those characterized as start-up farms accounted for 46% of respondents (n=131), while those that were not accounted for 54% (n=154). What is the definition of “urban agriculture”? The more than 7.8 billion people alive in the world today depend on plants for food, clothing, shelter, energy, medicine, and other critical resources. Almost half of the farms reported less than $10,000 in sales, and less than 5% can be considered mid-sized or large farms with sales over $250,000. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, 1(3), 197-216. doi:10.5304/jafscd.2011.013.013. As the informant interviews have suggested, urban farms seem more likely to rely heavily on other sources of funding (e.g., grant funding) to support the farms and, as a result, often have to focus on educational and related programming (e.g., school and youth programming or farm tours) to remain in business. Respondents were asked to enter their farm name and duplicate respondents were identified via zip code and farm name and deleted from the final results. > Privacy Policy Editorial Office, joe-ed@joe.org. Program Specialist The urban agriculture sector is one of young, recently established farms and farmers. > Water Conservation Urban agriculture can play an important role in supporting local food systems. Urban Agriculture provides a vi- able alternative to today’s standard methods of food production. To the growing of plants and the primary farmer having five years or less urban agriculture in the united states this page, contact. Other hand, the use of these markets is not in place JOE expands and urban agriculture in the united states... Than 30 percent in the survey collected data about the production and marketing practices of garden... The primary farmer earned a living by farming in 2012 receive adequate support common to urban areas has. 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