It was located 3.0 m far away from the dam body and has a parallel position to the dam crest. The computer program used for seismic analysis should be available for the probabilistic and deterministic assessment of seismic hazard. These dams included most of those shaken in 1971. There is no any concrete dam, which was damaged as a result of earthquake in Turkey [25, 26]. Figure 3 shows these zones including faults and earthquakes occurred in the basin along last 100 years. A lot of people get killed and injured. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis provides a framework in which uncertainties can be identified and combined in a rational manner to provide a more complete picture of the seismic hazard [11]. The second one is commonly seen, however first one results to more serious problems for dams and their appurtenant structures. According to [9], safety requirements for concrete dams subjected to dynamic loadings should involve evaluation of the overall stability of the structure, such as verifying its ability to resist induced lateral forces and moments and preventing excessive cracking of the concrete. In other words, approximately 3.0 million cubic meter of dam embankment was displaced into the reservoir. 1013-1029. Most of large dams in Turkey were analyzed by using these definitions [28]. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. If you need an account, please register here, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. It may be pointed out that in the ground surface composed of unconsolidated geomaterials, such as alluvium, colluvium, artificially infilled and levelled depressions, swamp deposits reclaimed through the dumping of coarse sands and city garbage, the vibration of earthquakes … It is known as the earthquake that produces the ground motions at the site that can reasonably be expected to occur within the service life of the project [3]. This means one must consider both the inertial effect of the structural mass as well as that of the water in the artificial reservoir. Its crest length is 1 670 m and base width is approximately 900 m. It is located 35 km north of the Birecik dam reservoir and 120 km south of Karakaya dam body. Many people lose their money and property. For beginning to a seismic hazard analysis, primary factors such as regional geological setting, seismic history and local geological setting should be studied, and then earthquake definitions should be executed. Researchers state that earthquakes were caused in their reservoirs by RTS. Whereas near source effect seems the most serious problem for embankment dams. In Turkey, it is defined as a level of ground motion having 2 percent probability of not being exceeded in 50 years. Its embankment with the structures on crest slid into the reservoir. Most of dams were small earth dams with exception of four large dams having a height greater than 100 m. According to Chinese officials the earthquake occurred along the Longmenshan fault, which is a thrust structure along the border of the Indo-Australian Plate and Eurasian Plate, the rupture lasted 120 sec, the rupture propagated at an average speed of 3.1 km/s toward northeast. There are multiple cases where earthquakes have resulted in sliding and lateral spreading of embankments, crest settlement, and in some instances liquefaction and embankment failure. OBITUARY. It can also be seen for a reservoir after a certain time lag [5]. The Ambiesta arch dam in northern Italy is 59 m high and was only 22 km from the epicentre of the Gemona-Friuli earthquake of 6 May 1976 (Magnitude 6.5). Usually the main hazard, which is addressed in codes and regulations, is the earthquake ground shaking. The total risk for dam structures mainly depends on the seismic hazard rating of dam site and the risk rating of the completed structure. Methods of analysis for a dam located on active seismic area in Turkey. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. No dams were failed during this earthquake, although there were so many damaged dams. The seismic hazard analysis was performed for the dam by means of two separate methods. Last week, China mounted an arduous mission to … According to recent surveys, Reservoir Triggering Seismicity (RTS) has been observed at over 100 locations worldwide [4, 19, 20]. The purpose of any dam is to impound the flowing water. NDAs provide insights on potential failure modes and serve as a basis for generating fragility curves for risk analyses. W.F. Case studies about the seismic performance of dams under large earthquakes are available in the literature. After selection of earthquakes, static, pseudo-static and dynamic analyses should be performed and liquefaction phenomenon and near source effect should be evaluated. Nonlinear deformation analyses (NDAs) are used for evaluating the potential effects of liquefaction on the seismic performance of embankment dams. There is another fact that dams with large reservoirs also trigger earthquake. Large reservoirs can trigger earthquake. The largest and most damaging earthquake triggered by a man-made reservoir may be the 7.9-magnitude Sichuan earthquake in May 12, 2008. The reservoir capacity is an important factor in triggering earthquakes as well as reservoir depth. [8] states that SEE may be chosen to have a lower return period depending on the consequences of dam failure. Damages due to RTS have been in two dams: (1) Koyna dam, which is gravity dam having 103 m height in India. Especially Concrete Faced Rockfill Dams (CFRD’s) have high risk potential when considered near source effect (earthquake epicenter to dam axis is less than 10 km). It is clear that the main requirement in earthquake-resistant design for dams is to protect public safety, downstream life and property. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of earthquake direction on seismic performance of concrete gravity dams subjected to seismic sequences. It investigates the effects of earthquake on dams, also effects of dam on earthquake occurrence. Effects of Earthquakes on Dams and Embankments. It generally represents the ground motion with 475 years of return period [28]. This phenomenon is dealed with the fact that the transferred energy by rockfill is not absorbed by concrete face during earthquake. This leads to formation of reservoir in which a large portion of land is submerged along with the river course on which the dam is made. It mentions main requirements for large dams on view of earthquake engineering to find rational design solutions. This paper gives an overview on the effects of earthquake on dams and effects of dam on earthquake occurrence, and points out the necessity of special design and construction measures for the dams, which are under the effects of strong ground motions. The most serious case may be the 7.9-magnitude Sichuan earthquake in May 12, 2008, which killed an estimated 90,000 people. The earthquakes that occurred within the last 100 years should be used for estimating seismic parameters. To sign up for alerts, please log in first. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? In this dam, damages have been observed near crest due to ground vibration. It will be appropriate to choose a minimum return period of 145 years. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. It affects the mental health and emotional health of people. Article copyright remains as specified within the article. The field studies indicates that the main factors acting reservoir seismicity are in-situ stress conditions, availability of fractures and faults, geology of the regional area, dimensions of the reservoir and the nature of reservoir level fluctuations. Ataturk dam, which is a 169 m height zoned rockfill dam on the Euphrates River in Turkey with an 84 000 hm3 of water reservoir, poses high risk about triggering phenomena by reservoir. Its level fluctuates from 526 to 535 m as based on climate change and energy demand. The seismic sources should be identified and the recurrence interval of earthquakes should be estimated. The effect of reservoir loading on the existing stress field has been investigated by several studies [1, 5, 13, 14, 15, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23]. Water within the rock masses under huge hydrostatic pressure acts to lubricate faults, which are already under tectonic strain, however are prevented from slipping by friction of rock planes. [28] stated that safety concerns for embankment dams subjected to earthquakes involve either the loss of stability due to a loss of strength of the embankment and foundation materials or excessive deformations such as slumping, settlement, cracking and planer or rotational slope failures. Civil Engng 22 , 278 – 279 . Hasan Tosun (May 20th 2015). Location of dam site on seismo-tectonic map and earthquakes. Chen, D.J. It is clear that active faults, which are located close to dam sites, can induce to damaging deformation of the embankment as based on instability of the dam and strength loss of foundation materials. DESIGN CHARTS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE CIRCULAR COLUMNS IN ACCORDANCE WITH EUROCODE 2. Its main embankment construction was started in 1985 and completed in 1990. Many building, hospitals, schools, etc are destroyed due to it. Available from: From Engineering Seismology to Optimal Seismic Design of Engineering Structures, Advances in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Soil Liquefaction and Seismic Safety of Dams and Monuments, Effects of dams on seismicity of the region, A case study on the reservoir triggered seismicity for an existing dam, Main design principles for dams located on active seismic area, Civil Engineering Department, Uşak University, Uşak, Turkey. ICOLD recommends that Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS) should be considered for reservoirs having a depth more than 100 m. USCOLD has reported that Reservoir Induced Seismicity (RIS) should be taken into account for reservoirs deeper than 80-100m. As a result of this earthquakes so many elements of dam such as dam body, spillways, powerhouses, penstocks, switchyards, hydro-mechanical and electro-mechanical equipments, temporary structures were damaged, other disasters such as rockfalls, landslides and landslide dams were observed. The powerful April 25 earthquake in Nepal damaged 14 existing hydropower dams, including the 45-megawatt Upper Bhotekoshi Hydropower Project, according to the Nepal Electric Authority. Earthquake effects on dams mainly depend on dam types. Recently scientists believe the fact that the over one percent of reservoirs resulted to earthquake which can damage or fail the main structure. 6.3.1 Dam–Foundation Interaction Effects 112. The dams, which are located on shear zones, have high risk potential when they are subjected to strong ground motion. An attempt to evaluate the monetary loss for the tourism industry … There was significant differential settlement of the ground of about 5 cm in the northern section, and 20 cm in the southwestern section of the site [24]. 17 Crystal Springs Dam (a curved gravity type shown above) was undamaged by … Earthquake is defined as a sudden and rapid shaking of the earth caused by the breaking and shifting of rock beneath the Earth’s surface and it creates seismic waves, which can result in damages and failures on man-made structures constructed on the crust of earth [18]. In Turkey, a design engineer should conform to diagram given in Figure 4. For fault movements in dam site, the Shih-Kang weir can be considered as good case study. During the 1972 San Fernando Earthquake, Lower San Fernando Dam failed a result of liquefaction phenomena [12, 17, 24]. Recommend this journal It means that it has high risk potential for downstream life and structures. N. M. Newmark. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. One of the Namada Valley dam, which is built at the triple junction of the fault zones, tectonically and geologically a disturbed area. There are some examples of embankment dam in Turkey, which were damaged during the earthquakes occurred in past. [28] reveals the fact that active faults, which are very close to the foundation of dams, have the potential to cause damaging displacement of the structure. This phenomenon is dealed with the fact that the transferred energy by rockfill is not absorbed by concrete face during earthquake. Terhi dam in India has also similar position under dynamic loading conditions. Keyword: Rocks/rock Mechanics (articlesChapters - 99) Keyword: KAMYSIAK … The second one is commonly seen, however first one results to more serious problems for dams and their appurtenant structures. Near source effect should be considered with more attention for large dams in design stage. In the case of the March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan, damages were observed about 400 dams and the 18 m high embankment dam failed and 8 people lost their live [34]. The magnitude of this earthquake was 6.3. 6.4 Dam–Water–Foundation Interaction Effects 115. effect of the earthquake motions on the developed hydrodynamic pressure and it’s time-dependent variation on the upstream face of the dam. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. The effect of concrete degradation on the seismic response is also considered in the present study which would help in safety evaluation of the concrete gravity dam under consideration at any specific age. There are some examples of dams, which were damaged during the earthquakes that occurred in the past. Author has completed a study from seismic hazard analysis to 2-D finite element analysis to assess its static and dynamic stability for Ataturk dam [31]. In case of the May 12, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China many structures about 1803 dams and 403 hydropower plants having a total installed capacity of 3.3 GW were damaged due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake intensity has increased after impounding of Keban Dam, which is the second largest dam of Turkey with a storage capacity of 31000 hm3.and 207 m height from foundation [30]. Earthquakes and Dams, Earthquake Engineering - From Engineering Seismology to Optimal Seismic Design of Engineering Structures, Abbas Moustafa, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/59372. 7 Comparison of Computed and Recorded Earthquake Responses of Dams 117. PROFESSOR CHARLES FREWEN JENKIN, CBE, FRS, 1865-1940. It is a rockfill dam with central core. Efficient techniques are developed for evaluating the … F A MOHAMMAD, B MERRONY and . The effect of the earthquake on inbound tourism in the whole considered area is summarized in the last three rows of Table 1, where the excess residuals are aggregated according to Equation 14 through the 12 districts. Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. View Record in Scopus Google Scholar. Increase in seismicity was also seen in 1935 after the impounding of Hoover dam, which is a concrete arch dam with a height of 220 m. Up to now, RTS has been observed on over 100 dams in the world. Active faults pose the potential to cause damaging displacement of the structure when they are located very close to dam site. As a result of an extensive survey and a search of available literature [28, 29, 31]. Turkey is one of the most seismically active regions in the world. N. M. Newmark. Embankments and outlet towers respond to earthquake vibrations. The geology of dam sites are very complicated and frequently jointed, fractured and faulted. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. Confidence in these applications of NDAs may be significantly improved by establishing calibration and analysis protocols … Both dams are still in operation after strengthened. During the 2001 Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat, India, 245 dams had been affected and rehabilitated or strengthened after the earthquake. It is a well-known phenomenon that earthquakes can result damages and failures for dams and their appurtenant structures. Effects on earth dams of drawdown scenarios imposed after a strong earthquake Sica et al. The earthquake caused 965 deaths and damage estimated, at the time, of USD 2.8 billion. Selecting this option will search the current publication in context. The basement of Ataturk dam is formed by karstic limestone, regarded as problematic rock for dam foundation. Earth-rock dam plays an important role in water conservancy project, but there were many damage cases caused by earthquakes, so it is necessary to investigate dynamic responses of earth-rock dams under combined action of earthquake and wave. Recent study conducted by author indicates that the PGA value is considerable level and Bozova fault has a significant potential for reservoir triggering seismicity for Ataturk dam. Therefore, RTS should be defined sensitively as based on local geologic units and tectonic structures by means a detail seismic hazard analysis. Rescue Mission. It has also a coarse grained soil zone obtained from river deposits and a random zone, which is composed of laminated limestone. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. duration of earthquake. It means a 50 percent probability of not being exceeded in 100 years. In this dam, two openings were failed due to large movements of Chelungpu fault during the magnitude of 7.3 in Chi-Chi earthquake of September 1999 in Tawian. We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. Ground shaking from earthquakes can collapse dams. The earthquake affected not only the physical structures — the people working at hydropower facilities were also in peril. Earthquake effects on dams mainly depend on dam types. This phenomenon is defined as Reservoir-induced Seismicity that is mainly depended to excessive water pressure created in the micro-cracks and fissures in the foundation units under and near the reservoir. The subjects presented in the paper were addressed by the international committees and recent surveys. How? Liquefaction is defined as a phenomena in which the strength and stiffness of a saturated soil is reduced earthquake shaking. It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. [31] states that the 25-years old rockfill dam also has some problems in static condition and it cannot meet current seismic design standards. Figure 1 shows buckling of river embankment lining after the earthquake. The 1994 Northridge Earthquake induced ground motions, sometimes quite severe, at 105 dams located within a 75 km radius of its epicenter (California State Division of Safety of Dams, post-earthquake inspection report update, May 1994). It was subjected to an earthquake with magnitude of 6.3 in 1967. According to [3], MDE is normally characterized by a level of motion equal to that expected at the dam site from the occurrence of deterministically evaluated MCE and Safety Evaluation Earthquake (SEE) should be used for critical structures located in very active seismic area. It is not a negligible value that this mechanism should be considered by engineers in design stage. Whenever carrying out safety inspections on dams under construction in officially declared seismic areas or in any zones of this ilk, one must always take into account not only the normal static effects, but also those triggered by the earthquake. There are so many dams, which are under the effect of near-source zones in Turkey. The author points out the fact that these dams are under the influence of local near-source zone and have high-risk potential for earthquake conditions. Seismic zones and earthquakes within the area having a radius of 100 km around the dam site should be considered. 6.3.2 Implications of Ignoring Foundation Mass 112. The seismic hazard analyses performed throughout this study indicates that Ataturk dam is one of the most critical dams within the basin. Possible effects of earthquakes on earth dams are outlined and illustrated by descriptions of the performance of the Hebgen Dam in the Hebgen Lake earthquake of 1959, the Sheffield Dam in the Santa Barbara earthquake of 1925 and the San Fernando Dams in the San Fernando earthquake of 9 Feb. 1971. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. Local arrivals in Assisi fell drastically the month following the main shock, compared to the same month of the previous year. Different ground motion effects and besides rigid and elastic foundation conditions are considered in the finite element analyses. A good example to damages resulted by ground shaking vibrations in dams is Sefid buttress dam, which was damaged near crest due to ground shaking the 1990 Manjil earthquake with a magnitude of 7.5 in Iran. This earthquake has been related to the construction of the Zipingpu Dam, which is a 156 m high concrete faced rockfill dam with a reservoir of 1 120 hm3. There are some important cases, which subjected to damages and failures after earthquake. There is a transition section of sand, gravel and small sized crushed rock between the core and rockfill materials. Been increased after reservoir impounding or following sudden reservoir water level fluctuations into the reservoir it also! 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Chi-Chi earthquake [ 32 ] value averages to 0.197g and 0.408, respectively based... 4 0 percent by a man-made reservoir may be the 7.9-magnitude Sichuan earthquake in Gujarat, India 245. Was defined by means a detail seismic hazard analysis considers uncertainties in size, location and recurrence of! Are subjected to an earthquake, lower San Fernando earthquake, Klose said that. Earth dams decreased approximately 4 0 percent must consider both the inertial effect of the completed structure,..